Atlas of Gastroenterological Endoscopy
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Mini dictionary
The dictionary explains some medical terms used in the atlas of gastrointestinal endoscopy to interested none- medical pro- fessionals. The explanation are closely related to the field of gastroenterology and are taken from the texts explaining the pictures in the atlas. For any further explanation visit the medical terms dictionary.
Abcess accumulation of pus
aboral located in the direction away from the mouth
Adenoma benign mucosal tumor
Adrenalin physiological substance, which contracts vessels, thus it´s used to treat acute hemorrhage
Adrenalin injection see above
afferent loop part of the duodenum (sometimes the jejunum) which is changed to form a blind end only to deliver pancreatic juice and bile to the part of the intestine, which ist still transporting food
Afterloading special way to deliver irradation to cavities of the human body
Anal channel connection betwen the anus and the rectum
Anastomosis surgical connection (suture) between organs (i.e.: after parts have been taken out.)
Angiodysplasia vessel malformation of the skin or the mucous membrane, can cause hemorrhage
antegrad directed foreward
Anthrachinone substance contained in laxatives
Antral carcinoma cancer of the Antrum
Antral varices pathological dilatations of the venes in the antrum caused by liver cirrhosis
Antrum part of the stomach, just before the exit of the stomach
anular pancreas malformation of the pancreas, the organ is shaped like a ring
Aorta main artery of the body
Aortic aneurysm dilatation of the aorta, may rupture (live threatening event)
Aortic stenosis narrowness of the cardial valve next to the aorta
Appendix adjunct to the cecum
Argonplasmacoagulation method to coagulate and degenerate tissue
Arthrosis degeneration of joints
Artifact endoscopic finding caused by the intervention itself
Äthoxysclerol alcohol (high alcohol content) used to obliterate varices
Atrophy, atrophic process during which the mucosa gets thinner and looses glands
Azinus cell carcinoma pancreatic carcinoma of very specified origin (derived from the acinar cells)
Banding ligation of varices with rubber bands
Barrett epithelum mucosal changes of the lower esophagus, precancerous lesion
B-cell subset of lymphocytes
Beta blocker medicine which lowers blood pressure, thus also the portal blood pressure
Bezoar lump of food in the esophagus or stomach
Billroth II, BII surgical procedure to resect 2/3 of the stomach
Biopsy taking a specimen from tissue
Biopsy forceps device to take out biopsy from the gastrointestinal tract through the endoscope
Bougienage dilatation
Brunnerom benign tumor originating from the glands of Brunner in the duodenum
Candida fungus affecting the esophagus and rarely the whole body in people with a very week immun system
Carcinoma malignant tumor derived from epithelial cells
Carcinoma in situ early cancer
Carcinoma of the cecum malignat tumor of the cecum, colon cancer
Cardia small, upper part of the stomach, representing the lower part of the esophago-gastral junction
Carzinoid malignant tumor derived from neuro-endocrine tissue, as opposed to the epithelum. May occurr in colon, intestine and stomach.
Cecum first part of the colon, it´s a blind end (only the appendix is fixed to this blind end). The ileum drains to it via the Valve of bauhini
Cervical carcinoma cancer of the distal part of the womb
Cholangiography, Cholangiogram x-ray imaging of the biliary tract filled with contrast
Cholangitis inflammation of the biliary tree
Cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gall bladder
Cholecystitis inflammation of the gall bladder
Cholecystolithiasis stones in the gall bladder
Choledocholithiasis stones in the biliary tract
Cholestasis biliary congestion
Circumference perimeter
Cirrhosis scarring of an organ, organ specific tissue gets substituted by connective tissue
Cirrhous scarring, getting smaller
Clip Metall device to close bleeding vessels or mucosal lesions
Clipping stopping hemorrhage by applying a clip
CLL chronic lymphatic leucemia
Clostridium difficile germ physiologically present in the colon, can cause severe diarrhea during antibiotic treatment, because it is resistent against most antibiotics
Coagulation process of clotting
Coagulum clot
Coincidence occurrence of two separate diseases at the same time by pure chance
Colitis inflammation of the colon
Colitis ulcerosa inflammatory bowel disease, affecting only the colon as opposed to Crohn´s disease
Collagen important protein of the connective tissue
Colon large intestine
Colon ascendens part of the colon located in the right lower quadrant, at the beginning of the colon
Colon carcinoma malignant tumor of the colon (cancer)
Colon descendens part of the colon located in the left lower quadrant
Colon sigmoideum part of the colon located in the left lower quadrant aboral to the descending colon, has got the shape of an "S"
Colon transversum part of the colon located in both upper quadrants
Coloscopy, colonoscopy endoscopic examination of the large intestine
Concrement stone
confluent two or more lesions proliferating and thus becoming one
Congenital potentially present already at birth
Contraindication Clinical situation which forbids an examination or treatment
contrast medium fluid, which absorbs radiation thus creating a shadow on the x-ray film. Filling hollow organs with contrast medium will outline the shape of the organ
Corpus middle part of the stomach
Cranial located above.....
Crohn´s disease chronic inflammation of the bowels. As opposed to ulcerative colitis, which affects only the colon, Crohn´s disease may affect the whole gastrointest´inal tract
Cryoglobulinemia disease resulting from proteins in the blood, which clot in response to cold temperature
CT, Computed tomography Radiological method based on the computer, which has to put radiological information together to achieve x-ray pictures
Cyst cavity filled with fluid carrying an epithelial lining
Dehydratation lack of water in the body
De-novo-Karzinom colon cancer not originating from a polyp
dexter right
Dilatation ballon Ballon filled with air or water after introduction to the organ via the endoscope to dilatate i.e a stenosis
distal located at the lower end, or lower than....
Distant metastases tumor seeds far away from the original tumor
Diverticulitis inflammation of a diverticulum
Diverticulum sac-like pocket in the wall of hollow organs
Diverticulum of the colon diverticulum of the colon
Dormia basket retrieval basket to trapp and extract stones from the biliary duct
dorsal located at the back of the body
Ductus choledochus biliary duct, collects bile from both hepatic biliary ducts and drains into the duodenum
Ductus cysticus connects the gall bladder to the bile duct
Ductus hepaticus dexter right hepatic biliary duct
Ductus hepaticus sinister left hepatic biliary duct
Ductus pancreaticus pancreatic duct
Ductus Wirsungianus main duct of the pancreas, as opposed to the Ductus santonirini, which drains only a tiny portion of the pancreatic head
Duodenal bulb first part of the duodenum
Duodenal diverticelum diverticulum of the Duodenum
Duodenal lipoma benign tumor of the duodenum derived from the fatty tissue
Duodenal ulcer ulcer of the duodenum
Duodenal varices dilated venes in the duodenum, which carry a risk of rupture
Duodenitis inflammation of the duodenum
Duodenoscopy endoscopic examination of the duodenum
Duodenoskop flexible endoscope with a lateral view to focus on the papilla, used for ERCPs
Dysphagia difficulties swallowing liquids or food
Dysplasic epithelum changes of the epithelum, still benign
Edema, edematous swelling during inflammation, but also induced by pure water i.e. in heart failure
Endoloop loop made of plastic, which is deployed around huge pedunculated polyps prior to resection to prevent hemorrhage
Endoscopee hose - like optical instrument used to examine hollow organs like the gastrointestinal tract
Endoscopy using endoscopes for examination and treatment
epigastric located in the middle of the abdomen just below the ripp cage
Epithelum cells covering the mucosa
EPT abbreviation for sphincterotomy, papillotomy (endoscopic papillotomy)
ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreaticography. Endoscopic manoevre to depict the bile duct and the pancreatic duct in order to diagnose pathological changes, but also to take biopsies, extract stones or insert stents to secure an unobstructed bile or pancreatic flow.
ERCP-catheter Instrument used to canulate the papilla and to fill the bile or pancreatic duct with contrast medium
Erosion, erosive superficial trauma to the mucosa
Erythema, erythematous redish changes of the skin or mucosa, secondary to an intensified blood flow
Esophagea hiatus gap of the diaphragm, which allows the esophagus to reach the abdominal cavity
Esophageal ulcer ulcer of the esophagus
Esophagus gullet
ESWL extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy, method to destroy stones by shock wave from outside the body
Etiology science of the origin of diseases
Excision resection
exophytic protruding from the mucosa
extraintestinal located outside the intestinal tract
extraperitoneal located outside the peritoneum
Exudation, exudative secretion of fluid
Exulceration partial destruction of the mucosa
Fibrin physiologic protein , important to stop bleeding and to close wounds
Fibrin clotting method to stop bleeding by injecting fibrin (synthetic) to the site of bleeding
filiforme as narrow as a thread
Fine needle biopsy Excision of tissue by a fine needle in order to avoid major trauma
Fissure rupture of the mucosa
Fistula pathological connection between to hollow organs
folliculär local ,benign, glandiforme proliferation of epithelum
Fragmentation cut into pieces
Fundal varices dilatation of venes in the fundus secondary to liver cirrhosis, rupture is live threatening
Fundus upper parts of the stomach
Gastrectomy surgical procedure to resect the stomach
Gastric lymphoma malignant tumor of the lymphatic tissue of the stomach
Gastric ulcer ulcer of the stomach (ferquence: antrum> corpus> cardia)
Gastritis inflammation of the stomach
Gastroenterology part of internal medicine dealing with the digestive organs
gastrointestinal related to the gastrointestinal tract
gastrointestinal stroma tumor,GIST semi-malignant tumor derived from the connective tissue
Gastroscopy endoscopic examination of the stomach
Germ ascension migration of germs up into usually sterile areas
Granularcell tumor benign tumor
Granulation tissue tissue, which develops a scarr
granulomatous made of small knots, reaction to inflammation
Guide wire Wire, which is inserted into the biliary/pancreatic duct.´Over a guide wire instruments more difficult to manoeuvre and also stents can be introduced easily to the duct.
Hämatochezia bloody stool
Hematin blood changed in consistence and colour by the gastric acid
Hematoma blood spilled to tissue i.e. after a bruise
Hemicolectomy resection of one half of the colon
Hemobilia blood in the biliary tract
hepatic related to the liver
Hepatic fork confluence of the two hepatic ducts, origin of the common biliary duct
Hepatic gastropathy changes of the gastric mucosa in liver cirrhosis
Hernia protrusion of tissue or parts of organs through a none physiologhic gap
Hiatal hernia partial herniation of the stomach into the thoracic cavity
Histoacryl synthetic adhesive designed to fill and obliterate varices
Histoacryl clotting method to fill and obliterate namely fundal varices with Histoacryl
Histology, histological examination of tissue and epithelum with a microscope
HNPCC heriditary non polyposis colon cancer - colon cancer inherited, but not developing from polyps.
Hodgkin-Lymphoma malignant tumor of the lymphatic tissue
Hyperplasia benign proliferation of mucosa cells
idiopathic without kown origin
Ileitis inflammation of the ileum
Ileitis terminalis inflammation of the most distal part of the ileum, often seen in Crohn´s disease
Ileum lower part of the small intestine
Ileus obstruction of the intestine
Incidence number of disease cases occurring in a period of time
Indication clinical situation warranting a certain treatment or examination
inferior lower than...
Infiltration tumor proliferating into organs
Injection needle needle, which can be inserted through the working channel of an endoscope to i.e. the mucosa, for examle in case of hemorrhage
intestinal related to the intestine
intramural located in the wall of an organ
intraoperative during an operation
intravasal located in a blood vessel
Intubation insertion of an instrument into an orifice
Inverted position "U"shaped position of the tip of the endoscope allowing a look back
Ischemia, ischemic lack of blood supply
Jaundice yellow pigmentation of the skin after obstruction of the biliary tree or dysfunction of the liver
Jaundice obstructive jaundice caused by an obstruction of the biliary tree
juxtapapillary located just next to the papilla
Kidney failure failure of the kidneys to exrete water and toxic substances
Klatskin tumor tumor of the biliary duct, (4 different locations I-IV)
Klysma enenma
Laparoscopee rigid endoscope surgical exploration of the peritoneal cavity
Laparoscopy Surgical procedure: Through little cuts in the abdominal wall a laprascope is advanced to the peritoneal cavity. The cavity is then insufflated with air, which allows to examin all peritoneal organs.
Laparotomy general expression for all surgical procedures opening the abdominal wall
Lavage rinsing a hollow organ with sterile water
Laxative medicine to induce bowel movements
Lesion injury
Leucoplakia precancerous lesion of superficial tissue
Ligature, to ligate to interrupt vessels
Linea dentata border between rectal mucosa and anal epithelum
Lipoma benign tumor of fatty tissue
Lithotripsy basket basket consisting of 4 strings strong enough to chrush stones
Lithtotripsy chrushing of stones
Lumen space encompassed by the walls of an hollow organ
Lymphangiectasy dilatation / malformation of lymphatic vessels
Lymphknot metastases spreading of proliferating tumorous tissue to the lymph knots
Lymphoma malignant tumor of the lymphatic tissue
makroscopic to be seen without magnification
Malignoma malignant tumor
MALT mucosa associated lymphatic tissue
MALToma malignant tumor derived from MALT
Mamma carcinoma breast cancer
MDS, myelodysplastic syndrome dysfunction of blood generation
Mediastinitis inflammation of the mediastinum
Mediastinum space located inbetween the thoracical organs
Melanosis coli black-brownish changes of the colon after ingestion of large amounts of laxatives
Mesothelioma malignant tumor of the pleura
Metaplasia, metaplastic changes of the epithelium, it develops signs of tissue of other localisations
Metastase, metastasize spreading of the tumor, malignant cells get transported via blood or lymphatic fluid to other sites, where they beginn to proliferate themselves
Methotrexate cytostatic drug used in chemotherapy protocols
Methylenblue dye, blue
Minor papilla in panreatic malformation the organ may have two orifices, the minor papilla would be the smaller one. The bile duct never drains via the minor but always via the major papilla
Monilial covered by fungi (Candida)
Monilial esophagitis inflammation of the esophagus caused by fungi, leaving white membranes on the mucosa
Monilial stomatitis inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth by fungi
Motility movements of the bowels
mucinous mucus-like
Mucosectomy method of resecting parts of the (dysplastic?) mucosa by means of a cautery snare
multilocular located at multiple sites
Muscularis mucosae muscular layer of the mucosa
Necrosis, necrotic dead tissue
nodular knot-like
Non Hodgkin-Lymphoma, NHL malignant tumor of the lymphatic tissue
NSAID non-steroidal- anti-inflammatory- drugs, painkillers also with a potential to lower fever and to inhibit inflammation. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned powerful inducer of ulcer disease. Especially dangerous, because the alarm symtom of ulcer induced pain is not felt.
Ostium orifice
Ovarian carcinoma ovarian cancer
Palliation, palliative situation, when healing is not possible / not intended, instead a pure relief of symtoms is aimed at
Palpation, palpatoric interpretation of changes by touching them
Pancolitis inflammation of the whole colon
Pancreas divisum malformation of the pancreas, the two roots are not properly fused. Incidence 10%, it represents a risk of chronic pancreatitis
Pancreatic enzymes substances needed to digest food, especially fat
Pancreatic pseudocyst collection of fluid in or adjacent to the pancreas. Occurrs after acute inflammation, some go into remissin spontaneously, some reach a size of more than 10 cm. Pseudocyst have to be drain only when causing symptoms
Pancreaticography, Pancreaticogram imaging of the pancreatic duct after contrast filling during ERCP
Pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
pancreatogen derived from the pancreas
Papilla of Vater muscular sphincter at the end of the bile / pancreatic duct, securung the drainage of biliary and pancreatic juice, preventing duodenal reflux
papillar adenoma benign proliferation of the mucosa
Papillary adenoma adenoma of the papilla
Papillary roof duodenal fold covering the papilla
Papillotoma cutting device mounted onto a catheter to cut the papilla electrically
Papillotomy During papillotomy the papillary roof isdisected to broaden the access to the biliary (pancreatic) duct, thus the sphincter is partly destroyed
paraesophageal located next to the esophagus
pararectal located next to the rectum
Parenchyma dspecific organ tissue i.e. of the liver
Pathological proteins proteins with irregular structure and irregular function
PEG percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, method to obtain a direct tube access percutaneously to the stomach in order to feed people, who can´t swallow
Perforation rupture of the wall of a hollow organ
perianal around the anus
peridiverticular around the diverticulum
perifocal around the focus
perigastric around the stomach
Peristaltic movement to facilitate the transport of food through the gastrointestinal tract
Petechiae, petechial little red dots occurring in thrombopenia
Pin whole biopsy multiple biopsies at exactly the same site in order to obtain tissue from deeper layer, i.e. the submucosa
plain x- ray x-ray without contrast medium
Plica angularis the stomach is formed a bit like a hook, the fold at the inner side of the bend is called Plica angularis
polycyclic outer margines very irregular, not round
Polyp benign tumor, can occurr in every organ. In the gastrointestinal tract colon polyps are most frequent. They have to be removed because they might develop cancer
Polypectomy removal of a polyp, most of the times endoscopically
Polypectomy snare loop used to remove polyps
polypoid polyp-like
portal hpertensive colopathy changes of the colon mucosa in portal hypertension
portal hpertensive gastropathy changes of the gastric mucosa in portal hypertension
Portal vein vein, which collects the blood from the abdominal organs to deliver it to the liver
portal vein pressure blood pressure in the portal vein. Decisive for the development of varices (esophageal, antral, fundal.......), and ascitic fluid (free fluid in the peritineal cavity). In liver cirrhosis the pressure is increasing because the blood can´t traverse the scarred liver. Treatment aims at lowering this pressure by drugs.
postoperative after a surgical intervention
Precancerosis, precancerous lesion with a potential to develop cancer with a specific relative risk
precardial located before or proximal or above the cardia
precut method of cutting the papilla, when a canulation of the papilla has failed before
Premedication drugs given before an interventation most often to sedate a patient
prepapillary located proximal to the or above the papilla in the biliary (pancreatic) duct
prepyloric located before or proximal to the gastric exit
prestenotic located before or above a stenosis
prestenotic dilatation dilatation occuring proximal to a stenosis
Prismatic epithelum epithelum of the gastrointestinal tract with the exception of the esophagus
Proctitis inflammation of the lower parts of the rectum
Proton pump inhibitors drugs to inhibit the production of gastric acid
proximal located before.... located above...... (related to the direction of function)
Pruritus feeling of itching
Pseudocyst cavity filled with fluid, but without a special epithelial lining
pseudomembranous mucosal change of the colon in inflammation caused bei Clostridium difficile. The germ is normally selected by antibiotic treatment.
Pseudopolyp looking like a polyp, but without proliferation of tissue
Pylorus outlet of the stomach
Pylorusstenosis obstruction of the gastral outlet
radiogen induced by radiation
Radiogram, Radiographiy x-ray with contrast enhancement
Rarefication, rarefy diminishing of
Rectal carcinoma cancer of the rectum
Rectal prolaps part of the rectal mucusa prolapses to the outside
Rectal ulcer ulcer of the rectum
Rectal varices dilated venes developping in portal hypertension
Rectum last part of the colon
Rectum amputation surgical removal of the rectum
Recurrence, recurrent to occurr again (after having been treated succesfully before)
Reflux esophagitis inflammation of the distal esophagus caused by reflux of acid
Relaparotomy second laparotomy
Reposition, to repone to bring into the correct position
Resection to cut out
retrograde backward direction, opposite of antegrade
Retroperitoneum space behind the peritoneum
Rheumatoid arthritis chronic inflammation of the joints
Rinsing channel channel of the endoscope, which allows to rinsing of the endoscope´s lense while the scope is introduced to the body
Rubber band ligation ligation of varices with rubber bands
Seldinger manoeuvre insertion of a guide wire at first, application of the catheter over the guide wire. This manoeuvre allows to reduce the calibre of the first needle/catheter used to gain access
selective specially chosen
Sepsis, septic severe inflammation
sessile not polypoid, just a little hump
Sigma see colon sigmoideum
Sigmoid diverticulum diverziculum of the sigam
Sigmoid divertikulosis presence of multiple diverticula in the sigma
singular just one
sinister left
Sklerotherapy injecting sclerosing agents into i.e. varices to obliterate them
Snare, cautery electric loop made auf steel used to cut/ resect polyps
Sonography ultrasound
Spider naevi vascular malformation typical of liver cirrhosis
Squamomous epithelium epithelum of mucosa specially resistant to mechanical stress
Staphylococci kind of germs
Stapler automated sewing machine for surgery
Status colicus long lasting colic (hours, sometimes days)
Stenosis narrowing
Stent metall or plastic tube used to brige a stenosis
stercoral induced by (hard) stool
Stroma tumor s. gastrointestinal stroma tumor
Subileus near complete obstruction of the intestine
Submucosa, submucous layer beneath the mucosa
Tamponade filling of a hollow organ, resulting in a halt to hemorrhage
Terumo guide wire hydrophilic guide wire cocered by teflon
thoracal related to the thorax
Thrombopenia shortness of platlet
Thrombosis obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot
TIPS transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic Shunt, method to create a connection between portal vene and the systemic circulation to reduce the portal hypertension. Since ´the device is introduced via the jugular vene on a catheter it is not a surgical operation
TNM-classifcation international classification of malignant tumors
Tracheal canula tube to gain acess to the bronchial tree in order to ventilate a patient
transanal through the anus
transcutanous through the skin
Transfusion blood transfusion
Transversum s. Colon transversum
tubolo-papillar adenoma benign proliferation of the mucosa
tubular adenoma benign proliferation of the mucosa
Ulcer means a deeper lesion to the mucosa
Ulceration s. Ulcer
Urämia urämic severe kidney failure
Valve of Bauhini junction between the ileum and the colon - valve like
Varice dilatation of venes. In gastroenterology varices along the gastrointestinal tract are dealt with. Varices of the gastrointestinal tract are cause of severe and live threarening hemorrhages, they develop in response to a raised portal pressure, thus they are a manifestation of congestion.
ventral directed to the front of the body (venter = (latin) stomach)
villous adenoma benign proliferation of the mucosa
vulnerable easy to injure
Wall stent metall tube, expandable after deployment over a catheter , used to treat obstruction i.e. to secure flow. Since it´s not removable it´s only indicated in malignant obstruction
Working channel channel used to insert i.e biopsy forceps into an endoscope
Xanthelasma collection of cholesterol in the skin or in the mucosa